The Historical Emergence of the Main Forms of Actors in the Middle East and North Africa Region

This paper will focused on the historical antecedents of actors involved in creating and developing Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and what are the differences amongst them. The timeline will begin in the aftermath of the Ottoman Empire that materialized into the advent of the European colonizations and birth of nation-states.

Revolutions spark all over the Fertile Crescent, when the Arabs knew that the twilight of the Ottomans are now commencing. According to Aroian and Mitchell (1984, p. 164), from the 1919 Syrian resistance that was affirmed by their French protectors through the provisions laid down in the League of Nations has led to the Iraqi revolt of 1920, which was resembled by British India and Egypt in the days of Lord Cromer because they were inspired by the Syrian revolution.

In generalization prism, all of the Arabian Peninsula is interconnected to each other with regards to their struggle for freedom and independence. In Halpern (1963, p. 256) contends that the San Remo Conference, in addition to confirming allied plans for Iraq and Syria, granted Britain a mandate that combined Palestine and Transjordan (the area across or east of the Jordan River).

Prior to the partition, Palestine had been part of greater Syria, while present-day Jordan was viewed as part of both Syria and Arabia. Ottoman administrative divisions had not included the terms Palestine and Jordan. When Britain obtained the mandate for Palestine at San Remo, the intention was that a national home for Jews should be set up in Palestine, but it was stated explicitly that not all conditions of the mandate would necessarily apply to the entire area.

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Document Analysis of “A History of Medieval Islam” by J.J. Saunders

 

One can crucially think and intellectually assumed that the civilization of the Arabs brought a medieval golden age that unified the whole West and South Asia, Northern Africa, and Southeastern Europe; stretching from Mesopotamia (Iraq), Persia (Iran), Asia Minor (Turkey), Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and India to the backdoors of the European continent (Spain) – was a product of the propagation of one powerful ideology, which is Islam.

In the book written by J.J. Saunders, a historian of middle age Islam, poignantly narrated the Islamic and Arab historiography in his book published in 1965 entitled “A History of Medieval Islam,” which have explicitly expressed a well-crafted academic research work during the medieval society of West Asia and the political interventions of different empires who have had occupied the whole boundless yet fragile region.

The proponent will succinctly try to examine this hypothesis, whether an indispensable Islam have unified half of the world through an inconsequential Arab civilization and factors that brought occupations into reality. The document in the last chapter, “The Civilization of Medieval Islam” will be the subject to a critical analysis.

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After 9/11: A Troika of Perceptions of Bush, Powell, and Rumsfeld on the Creation of the USA PATRIOT ACT of 2001

The researcher is investigating on the perceptions of the three leaders in maneuvering and speeding up the legislation of the controversial USA PATRIOT Act that after the infamous Sept. 9, 2001 event, this act was enacted in less than one month and thirteen days in the Senate and approved (Oct. 26, 2001) by Pres. Bush immediately.

The purpose of this study is to assess the schema of the three US leaders using Operational Code analysis through the Verbs In Context System method of content analysis in influencing in the creation of the said law. This will also serve if the perceptions of the three US leaders are consonance with a certain pattern of political belief , that somehow affect the thinking of other leaders as manifested in creating anti-terrorism laws worldwide.

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